Formation of Rust: 

  • Rust (ferric oxide; Fe2O3) is formed by the oxidation of iron
  • Iron (Fe) in metal loses electrons (2e-) within the pipe wall and to oxygen (O2) dissolved in passing water (H2O)
  • The resulting ferrous (Fe2+) ion loses an additional electron to hydroxide (OH-)
  • Two resulting ferric (Fe3+) ions form bonds with three oxygens resulting in ferric oxide (rust) on the surface of metal

Formation of Scale

  • Scale is the deposition of metal ions (such as manganese Mn2+; iron, Fe2+; magnesium, Mg2+; and calcium, Ca2+) and non-metals, (such as nitrogen sodium Na) in water
  • High concentrations of ions, changes in pH, and variations of water temperature can cause dissolved metals and non-metals to combine and precipitate (salt out) onto the interior pipe surface

Prevention and Removal of Rust:

  • Static electricity is generated by friction between flowing water and a special carbon electrode – electrons are transferred to water
  • Water is thus ionized
  • Electron losses by iron within pipe wall are stabilized – Fe is not oxidized to Fe2+
  • Full rust protection within 4 weeks after installation. Existing rust is also reduced with use over time.

Prevention and Removal of Scale:

  • Scale-forming particles change structure due to an adjusted chemical and ionic environment created by the device

  • Turbulence and an electric double-layer promote formation of orbicular particles that flow smoothly through plumbing without sticking

  • The ionically-charged water exiting the IOREX device gradually dissolves and dislodges existing scale from the pipe’s inner surface